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English- Know about the language


English is a language that started in Anglo-Saxon England. It is originally from Anglo-Frisian and Old Saxon dialects. English is now used as a global language. There are about 375 million native speakers (people who use it as their first language) in the world.

The term "English" is derived from Anglisc, the speech of the Angles—one of the three Germanic tribes that invaded England during the fifth century. The English language is the primary language of several countries, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and many of its former colonies, and the United States, and the second language in a number of multilingual countries, including India, Singapore, and the Philippines.


History

Three Germanic tribes that entered Britain in the fifth century AD are considered to be the true founders of the English language. The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes migrated over the North Sea from what is now northern Germany and Denmark. People in Britain during the time spoke a Celtic language. However, the majority of the Celtic speakers were driven by the invaders west and north, primarily into what is now Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. The Angles came from "Engaland" [sic] and their language was called "Englisc" - from which the words "England" and "English" are derived.


Old English (450-1100 AD)

The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. The words be, strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. Old English was spoken until around 1100. Old English, which is regarded as a Germanic language, served as the foundation for early English grammar. Parts of the Latin language were incorporated into the English language after the Norman French conquered England in 1066.


Middle English (1100-1500)

In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling and business classes. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English. It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (c1340-1400), but it would still be difficult for native English speakers to understand today.


Modern English(1500)

Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter.

Modern English. Many scholars consider the early Modern English period to have begun about 1500. During the Renaissance, English incorporated many words from Latin via French, from classical Latin (not just church Latin), and Greek. The King James Bible (1611) and works of William Shakespeare are considered in Modern English.

The term "Modern" English refers more to the relative stasis of its pronunciation, grammar, and spelling than it has anything to do with current vocabulary or slang, which is always changing.


American and British English

British and American English are the most prominent forms of English—other English varieties grew from these two. The emphasis in an English lesson or textbook is most likely to be on one of the following:

British English

The language of choice in the UK is British English. Since that is where English's roots are, it is the most ancient variety of the language.


American English

As the British Empire colonized the US, North American English arose. It is now the most common variant in the world and is spoken as a first language in the US and Canada.


You can easily grasp the other if you study the first one. It is significant to note that some spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, and slang are different.


Varieties of English


Just as the United States has regional dialects and there are differences in pronunciation and words in British and American English, the language has local varieties around the world: African-American Vernacular English, American, British, Canadian, Caribbean, Chicano, Chinese, Euro-English, Hinglish, Indian, Irish, Nigerian, Nonstandard English, Pakistani, Scottish, Singapore, Standard American, Standard British, Standard English, and Zimbabwean.



Common English Language structure

Nouns

In English, there are various noun categories, including proper nouns and common nouns. The suffix "-s" is typically added to the end of a word to indicate whether a noun is plural, which means there are several instances of the noun.


Pronouns

Pronouns are words that, in order to prevent repetition, stand in for nouns. In the English language, there are numerous different pronoun categories. The crucial ones are as follows:

  • Personal pronouns

  • Demonstrative pronouns

  • Relative pronouns

  • Interrogative pronouns

  • Indefinite pronouns

  • Dummy pronouns

Verbs

English verbs depict a sentence's action or status. In a sentence, verbs can take on many forms depending on the period of time or circumstance being discussed. As an illustration, the verb "eat" becomes "ate" in the past.


Adjectives

Adjectives are words that describe a noun. In English they always come before a noun to give you more information about that noun. You can see this in the sentence "the red apples are juicy."



According to Christine Kenneally in her book "The First Word", today there are about 6,000 languages in the world, and half of the world's population speaks only 10 of them. English is the single most dominant of these. British colonialism initiated the spread of English across the globe; it has been spoken nearly everywhere and has become even more prevalent since World War II, with the global reach of American power."


The influence of the English language has also spread globally through American pop culture, music, movies, advertising, and TV shows.

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